Although there has been a decline in HIV prevalence among females from 4.0% to 3.5%, and a slight increase among men from 3.2% to 3.3%, the burden is still higher for women than men across all age groups, except for the 35-39 years and 40-44 years age groups. In both urban and rural areas, HIV prevalence is currently higher among females. Likewise, incidence of sexually transmitted infection is reportedly higher among women (with rate between 8.3% and 10.6%) compared to men (with a rate of between 4% and 4.6%). Among age groups 15 years and above, annual number of new infections rose from 115,696 in 1990 to 168, 235 in 2013. For ages 0-14, the number of new infections was 10377 in 1990 and 54130 in 2013. Projected AIDS deaths has risen from 141,225 in 2000 to 233,604 in 2013, and this is associated mostly to ignorance, poor access to health and social services including ART, stigma and discrimination, gender issues and poverty. The analysis of data on HIV prevalence among key populations reveal that infection rates are still very high among FSW (27.4% for BBFSW and 21.1% for NBBFSW) compared to 17.2% for MSM and 4.2% for IDU.
According to 2009, Mode of Transmission study, 37% of new infections are attributable to persons perceived as practicing “low risk sex” in the general population, including married sexual partners, 22% through MTCT and 38% by other modes of transmission.
HIV/AIDS knowledge though increasing, is still low in the general population, 35.6% for male and 23.6% for females, and low across all sub-populations. Condom use seems to be increasing across all age groups but very far from the expected 100% condom usage. Lowest reported condom use is among young people aged 15-19, and especially young women who had sex with non-marital partners without the use of condoms. Among key populations, knowledge of HIV/AIDS is higher among FSW (41% for BBFSW and 36.1% for NBBSW), compared to 20.8% among MSM and 22.7% among IDU (IBBSS, 2010). The analysis of risk behavior among MARPS indicated that FSW are more likely to use condoms with clients (70%) than MSM (52%), IDU (22%) and HIV risk perception is highest among the FSWs.
ACHL works to improve access to HIV Counselling and testing especially at the community level. We also support the Community Prevention of Mother to Child Transmission of HIV/AIDS. We collaborate with government and non-government organizations in building capacity for the provision of HIV prevention, care and support services particularly among key populations including vulnerable women, girls and young people generally. The Director of ACHL facilitated the development of the National Plan of Action on Gender-based Violence and HIV/AIDS Intersections and has also been very active it supporting national implementation of the plan. In the same also facilitated the development of the Abuja Municipal Plan for Key Populations and the Curriculum Review for marginalized (socially excluded) women in Plateau in collaboration with Women for Women International.